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Contents:
  1. WrAP Overview
  2. Effective Framework for Primary-Grade Guided Writing Instruction | Reading Rockets
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  5. Effective Framework for Primary-Grade Guided Writing Instruction

The more simple and clear-headed a test step is, the easier it would be to proceed with the testing. We often have stringent timelines to finish up testing for an application. In this case, we may miss testing some of the important functionalities and aspects of the software. In order to avoid this, you should tag a priority with each test while documenting it. You can use any encoding for defining the priority of a test. It is generally better to use any of the 3 levels, high, medium and low , or 1, 50 and So, when you have a strict timeline, you should complete all the high priority tests first and then move to the medium and low priority tests.

For Example — for a shopping website, verifying access denial for an invalid attempt to log into the app can be a high priority case, verifying the display of relevant products on the user screen can be a medium priority case and verifying the color of the text displayed on the screen buttons can be a low priority test. Confirm whether the sequence of steps in the test is absolutely correct. A wrong sequence of steps can lead to confusion. Preferably, the steps should also define the entire sequence from entering the app until exiting the app for a particular scenario that is being tested.

WrAP Overview

There may be a case where you are testing an application, someone is making modifications in parallel to the same app or someone may update the app after your testing is done. This leads to a situation where your test results can vary with time. So, it is always better to add a timestamp with the tester's name in the testing comments so that a test result pass or fail can be attributed to the state of an application at that particular time.

For the ease of other testers, developers or whoever is reviewing the test document, you should add the browser name and version to the case so the defect can be replicated easily.

If you are documenting in an excel, then the first two sheets of the workbook should be Summary and Bugs. The Summary sheet should summarize the test scenario and the Bugs sheet should list all the issues encountered during testing. So, when the time is restricted, these two sheets can prove to be very useful in providing an overview of the testing.

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The test document should provide the best possible test coverage, excellent readability and should follow one standard format throughout. We spend most of our time writing, reviewing, executing or maintaining these. It is quite unfortunate that tests are also the most error-prone ones.

The differences in understanding, organization testing practices, lack of time etc. There are a lot of articles on our site on this topic, but here will see How NOT to write test cases — a few tips that will be instrumental in creating distinctive, quality and effective tests. For Example I am writing a test for Amazon. The following are my test steps Note: I am only writing the steps and not all the other parts of the test like the expected result etc. Launch Amazon. From the search results displayed, choose the first one. Click on Add to Cart on the product details page.

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Checkout and pay. Check the order confirmation page. Click on Checkout in the shopping cart page.


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Enter the CC information, shipping, and billing information. Click Checkout. Therefore, a composite step is the one that can be broken down into several individual steps. Lack of documentation, Extreme programming, rapid development cycles are few reasons that force us into relying on the application an older version or so to either write the tests or to base the testing itself on.

As always, this is a proven bad practice- not always really. It is only when you do not think that it is, things work badly. As always, we will let the examples do the talking. Case 2 is a better test case because even though the reference application behaves incorrectly, we only take it as a guideline, do further research and write the expected behavior as per the anticipated correct functionality.

Bottom line: Application as a reference is a quick shortcut but it comes with its own perils. As long as we are careful and critical, it produces amazing results. Take a look at the below test steps: The following are the test steps within one test for a login function. Enter valid details and click Submit. Leave Username field empty. Click Submit. Leave the password field empty and click Submit.

What had to be 4 different cases is combined into one. Well, not quite. Hence, write modular tests. The software testers should write their tests from the earlier stage of the software development life cycle, best during the software requirements phase. The test manager or a QA manager should collect and prepare the maximum possible documents as per the below list. It is a document that lists the business process, user profiles, user environment, interaction with other systems, replacement of existing systems, functional requirements, non-functional requirements, licensing and installation requirements, performance requirements, security requirements, usability and concurrent requirements etc.

This document details the use case scenario of the functional requirements from the business perspective. This document covers the business actors or system , goals, pre-conditions, post-conditions, basic flow, alternate flow, options, exceptions of each and every business flow of the system under requirements. This document details the functional requirements of each feature for the system under requirements.

Normally, functional requirements document serves as a common repository for both the development and testing team as well as to the project stakeholders including the customers for the committed sometimes frozen requirements, which should be treated as the most important document for any software development.


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A document which describes the details of the project, objectives, priorities, milestones, activities, organization structure, strategy, progress monitoring, risk analysis, assumptions, dependencies, constraints, training requirements, client responsibilities, project schedule etc. This document details the quality management system, documentation standards, change control mechanism, critical modules, and functionalities, configuration management system, testing plans, defect tracking, acceptance criteria etc.

The test plan document is used to identify the features to be tested, features not to be tested, testing team allocations and their interface, resource requirements, testing schedule, test writing, test coverage, test deliverables, pre-requisite for test execution, bug reporting and tracking mechanism, test metrics etc. The approach of testing will be almost the same even for complex screens with more information and critical features.

This may not be available for some of the functionalities and depends on the criticality of designing a prototype in the earlier stages of development. This kind of screen simplifies the tester's job and increases the efficiency of tests. It depends on the organization process, it will be available in a suite of multiple documents.

So, decide the best document for writing cases, either it may be a user requirement document or a functional requirements specifications or even an SRS document if it can be understandable comfortably by the testing team which will give a complete functional flow of the selected feature to be tested. Every concept should be applied to positive and negative tests.

With all this information in hand, let us start writing the TCs for the login screen, in a format with the complete coverage and traceability and with detailed information. Note : The test columns are not limited to the below sample test document, which can be maintained in an excel sheet to have as many columns as required for a complete traceability matrix viz.

For the ease of simplicity and readability of this document, let us write the steps to reproduce, expected and actual behavior of the tests for the login screen in detail below. When the test case is being written, the most important task for any tester is to collect the test data. This activity is skipped and overlooked by many testers with the assumption that the test cases can be executed with some sample data or dummy data and can be feed when the data is really required. This is a critical misconception that feeding sample data or input data from the mind memory at the time of executing test cases.

If the data is not collected and updated in the test document at the time of writing the tests, the tester would spend abnormally more time to collect the data at the time of test execution. The test data should be collected for both positive and negative cases from all the perspective of the functional flow of the feature.

The business use case document is very much useful in this situation. Find a sample test data document for the tests written above, which in turn will be helpful on how effectively we can collect the data which will ease our job at the time of test execution. In this busy world, no one can do repetitive things day in and day out with the same level of interest and energy. Especially, I am not passionate about doing the same task again and again at work.

I like managing things and saving time. Anyone in IT should be so. All IT companies execute different types of projects. Key findings of research into the teaching of handwriting and keyboarding skills include:. Even though some students seem to handwrite effortlessly, most students require explicit teaching. Recent research suggests consistent practice which provides students with opportunities to develop emerging skills is most beneficial for developing handwriting fluency Cahill, ; Schlagal, Regardless of what order letters are chosen to be taught, it is important that students know the names of individual letters and the sounds that can represent each one.

Letter names and their sounds serve as a memory cue and assist the retrieval of the motor-program required to successfully write a given letter Graham, Victorian Modern Cursive script to a digital device.


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  4. Alphabet models of Victorian Modern Cursive script joined and unjoined for right- and left-handers. If a student is struggling with handwriting automaticity, their handwriting will be slow and require more effort to complete.

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    There have been many studies undertaken on the benefits of handwriting intervention for students who lack automaticity with their handwriting. Improvement in handwriting speed and accuracy does impact the ability of students to generate written text. Cahill, S. Where Does Handwriting Fit In? Strategies to Support Academic Achievement. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44 4 , Case-Smith, J.

    Christensen, C. The role of orthographic-motor integration in the production of creative and well structured written text for students in secondary school.

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    Educational Psychology, 25 5 , Daffern, T. Predictors of writing success: How important are spelling, grammar and punctuation? Australian Journal of Education, 61 1 , The Teaching of Handwriting Revised Ed. Graham, S. The role of mechanics in composing of elementary school students: A new methodological approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, Is handwriting casually related to learning to write? Treatment of handwriting problems in beginning writers.

    Journal of Educational Psychology, 92 4 , The Education Digest, 76 1 , Jones, D. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91 1 , Longcamp, M. The influence of writing practice on letter recognition in preschool children: A comparison between handwriting and typing. Acta Psychologica, 1 , May , Free Resources Help your students write with creativity and success!

    Author Insight Videos Students often want to know what the life of a real author is like.

    Effective Framework for Primary-Grade Guided Writing Instruction

    The Chatterbox with FUN writing prompts! Curriculum Matrix Extract The Curriculum Matrix is a planning tool designed to help you quickly and easily find the content you require. Picture Books that Demonstrate the Seven Steps Jillian Mudford from Bellevue Hill Public School has kindly allowed us to share her comprehensive list of picture books that are perfect for modelling Seven Steps techniques.

    Teaching Poetry with the Seven Steps The beauty of the Seven Steps is that once you have mastered them they can be applied to any creative text types including poetry.

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    Videos and Adverts that Demonstrate the Seven Steps In our Seven Steps workshops and school PD sessions, we share a number of videos and advertisements that provide perfect examples of the Seven Steps in action. Workbook Covers Make your Seven Steps workbooks look super snazzy with these covers! Download colour cover. Lots of lovely stories about reluctant writers feeling very comfortable and confident. The teachers all seem really pleased with the program and the student work. This needs to be every school's writing program. I can guarantee our writing success was due to students being exposed to the Seven Steps of Writing Success.

    Students love it. Steps 2 - 7 have also been great in assisting with self and peer feedback sessions, especially in middle and upper primary. Wonderfully "grounded" in practice. Well paced with lots of activities and power point examples. Each week is a shared adventure in developing skills and fostering delight in writing.